This title describes the history of the African National Congress (ANC) of South Africa in the three decades following its banning. There are many myths surrounding the ANC: some of them are harmless, the product of enthusiastic supporters; others are malicious, disseminated by those in South Africa abroad who did their best to prevent the victory of the ANC and still cannot accept that victory as a reality. The belief is that the comprehensive history of the ANC should and will be written by South Africans. However, of non-South African historians, it is perhaps Soviet Russian scholars who are best placed to undertake such a study. This is because of the multifaceted relationship that developed between Moscow and the South African liberation movement. Inevitably, that relationship occupies a significant place in this title.